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Immune Book Sources


Alberts, Bruce, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, and Peter Walter. 2002. “The Shape and Structure of Proteins.” Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th Edition.

Boehm, Thomas, and Jeremy B. Swann. 2014. “Origin and Evolution of Adaptive Immunity.” Annual Review of Animal Biosciences 2 (February): 259–83.

Helander, Herbert F, and Lars Fändriks. 2014. “Surface Area of the Digestive Tract – Revisited.” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 49 (6): 681–89.

Ho, Brandon, Anastasia Baryshnikova, and Grant W. Brown. 2018. “Unification of Protein Abundance Datasets Yields a Quantitative Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Proteome.” Cell Systems 6 (2): 192-205.e3.

Müller, W. E., B. Blumbach, and I. M. Müller. 1999. “Evolution of the Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems: Relationships between Potential Immune Molecules in the Lowest Metazoan Phylum (Porifera) and Those in Vertebrates.” Transplantation 68 (9): 1215–27.

Murphy, Kenneth, and Casey Weaver. 2016. Janeway’s Immunobiology. 9th edition. New York, NY: Garland Science/Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Randow, Felix, John D. MacMicking, and Leo C. James. 2013. “Cellular Self-Defense: How Cell-Autonomous Immunity Protects Against Pathogens.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340 (6133): 10.1126/science.1233028.



“11.3A: Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) and Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs).” 2016. Biology LibreTexts. March 11, 2016.

Boraschi, Diana, and Paola Italiani. 2018. “Innate Immune Memory: Time for Adopting a Correct Terminology.” Frontiers in Immunology 9: 799.

Dowling, David J., and Ofer Levy. 2014. “Ontogeny of Early Life Immunity.” Trends in Immunology 35 (7): 299–310.

Farber, Donna L., Naomi A. Yudanin, and Nicholas P. Restifo. 2014. “Human Memory T Cells: Generation, Compartmentalization and Homeostasis.” Nature Reviews. Immunology 14 (1): 24–35.

Furman, David, Judith Campisi, Eric Verdin, Pedro Carrera-Bastos, Sasha Targ, Claudio Franceschi, Luigi Ferrucci, et al. 2019. “Chronic Inflammation in the Etiology of Disease across the Life Span.” Nature Medicine 25 (12): 1822–32.

Garg, Sanjay, Alp Oran, Janine Wajchman, Shin Sasaki, Charles H. Maris, Judith A. Kapp, and Joshy Jacob. 2003. “Genetic Tagging Shows Increased Frequency and Longevity of Antigen-Presenting, Skin-Derived Dendritic Cells in Vivo.” Nature Immunology 4 (9): 907–12.

Hirsch, R L. 1982. “The Complement System: Its Importance in the Host Response to Viral Infection.” Microbiological Reviews 46 (1): 71–85.

Kromer, J., T. Hummel, D. Pietrowski, A. S. Giani, J. Sauter, G. Ehninger, A. H. Schmidt, and I. Croy. 2016. “Influence of HLA on Human Partnership and Sexual Satisfaction.” Scientific Reports 6 (August): 32550.

Lerner, Aaron, Patricia Jeremias, and Torsten Matthias. 2015. “The World Incidence and Prevalence of Autoimmune Diseases Is Increasing.” International Journal of Celiac Disease 3 (4): 151–55.

Linscott, William D., and Warren E. Levinson. 1969. “Complement Components Required for Virus Neutralization by Early Immunoglobulin Antibody.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 64 (2): 520–27.

Llewelyn, Martin, and Jon Cohen. 2002. “Superantigens: Microbial Agents That Corrupt Immunity.” The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2 (3): 156–62.

Lythe, Grant, Robin E. Callard, Rollo L. Hoare, and Carmen Molina-París. 2016. “How Many TCR Clonotypes Does a Body Maintain?” Journal of Theoretical Biology 389 (January): 214–24.

Macatonia, S. E., S. C. Knight, A. J. Edwards, S. Griffiths, and P. Fryer. 1987. “Localization of Antigen on Lymph Node Dendritic Cells after Exposure to the Contact Sensitizer Fluorescein Isothiocyanate. Functional and Morphological Studies.” The Journal of Experimental Medicine 166 (6): 1654–67.

Mitchell, W. A., P. O. Lang, and R. Aspinall. 2010. “Tracing Thymic Output in Older Individuals.” Clinical & Experimental Immunology 161 (3): 497–503.

Murphy, Kenneth, and Casey Weaver. 2016. Janeway’s Immunobiology. 9th edition. New York, NY: Garland Science/Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Nasi, Milena, Leonarda Troiano, Enrico Lugli, Marcello Pinti, Roberta Ferraresi, Elena Monterastelli, Chiara Mussi, Gianfranco Salvioli, Claudio Franceschi, and Andrea Cossarizza. 2006. “Thymic Output and Functionality of the IL-7/IL-7 Receptor System in Centenarians: Implications for the Neolymphogenesis at the Limit of Human Life.” Aging Cell 5 (2): 167–75.

Rock, Kenneth L., and Hajime Kono. 2008. “The Inflammatory Response to Cell Death.” Annual Review of Pathology 3: 99–126.

Roh, Jong Seong, and Dong Hyun Sohn. 2018. “Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Inflammatory Diseases.” Immune Network 18 (4): e27.

Rosenzweig, Sergio D., and Steven M. Holland. 2011. “Recent Insights into the Pathobiology of Innate Immune Deficiencies.” Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 11 (5): 369–77.

Salomon, B., J. L. Cohen, C. Masurier, and D. Klatzmann. 1998. “Three Populations of Mouse Lymph Node Dendritic Cells with Different Origins and Dynamics.” Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950) 160 (2): 708–17.

Shanley, Daryl P., Danielle Aw, Nancy R. Manley, and Donald B. Palmer. 2009. “An Evolutionary Perspective on the Mechanisms of Immunosenescence.” Trends in Immunology 30 (7): 374–81.

Sommer, Simone. 2005. “The Importance of Immune Gene Variability (MHC) in Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation.” Frontiers in Zoology 2 (1): 16.

Steinmann, G. G., B. Klaus, and H. K. Müller-Hermelink. 1985. “The Involution of the Ageing Human Thymic Epithelium Is Independent of Puberty. A Morphometric Study.” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 22 (5): 563–75.

Tecle, Eillen, Hector Sequoyah Reynoso, Ruixuan Wang, and Pascal Gagneux. 2019. “The Female Reproductive Tract Contains Multiple Innate Sialic Acid-Binding Immunoglobulin-like Lectins (Siglecs) That Facilitate Sperm Survival.” Journal of Biological Chemistry 294 (31): 11910–19.

Thornhill, Randy, Steven W. Gangestad, Robert Miller, Glenn Scheyd, Julie K. McCollough, and Melissa Franklin. 2003. “Major Histocompatibility Complex Genes, Symmetry, and Body Scent Attractiveness in Men and Women.” Behavioral Ecology 14 (5): 668–78.

Tisoncik, Jennifer R., Marcus J. Korth, Cameron P. Simmons, Jeremy Farrar, Thomas R. Martin, and Michael G. Katze. 2012. “Into the Eye of the Cytokine Storm.” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR 76 (1): 16–32.

Uderhardt, Stefan, Andrew J. Martins, John S. Tsang, Tim Lämmermann, and Ronald N. Germain. 2019. “Resident Macrophages Cloak Tissue Microlesions to Prevent Neutrophil-Driven Inflammatory Damage.” Cell 177 (3): 541-555.e17.

Zhao, Ende, Huanbin Xu, Lin Wang, Ilona Kryczek, Ke Wu, Yu Hu, Guobin Wang, and Weiping Zou. 2012. “Bone Marrow and the Control of Immunity.” Cellular and Molecular Immunology 9 (1): 11–19.



“A New Take on Psychoneuroimmunology.” n.d. Https://Www.Apa.Org. Accessed October 12, 2021.

Baccam, Prasith, Catherine Beauchemin, Catherine A. Macken, Frederick G. Hayden, and Alan S. Perelson. 2006. “Kinetics of Influenza A Virus Infection in Humans.” Journal of Virology 80 (15): 7590–99.

Blaas, Dieter, and Renate Fuchs. 2016. “Mechanism of Human Rhinovirus Infections.” Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 3 (June): 21.

Boddy, Amy M., Angelo Fortunato, Melissa Wilson Sayres, and Athena Aktipis. 2015. “Fetal Microchimerism and Maternal Health: A Review and Evolutionary Analysis of Cooperation and Conflict beyond the Womb.” Bioessays 37 (10): 1106–18.

Boylston, Arthur. 2012. “The Origins of Inoculation.” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 105 (7): 309–13.

Carding, S. R., N. Davis, and L. Hoyles. 2017. “Review Article: The Human Intestinal Virome in Health and Disease.” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 46 (9): 800–815.

Chang, De, Charles S. Dela Cruz, and Lokesh Sharma. 2020. “Challenges in Understanding Lung Microbiome: It Is NOT like the Gut Microbiome.” Respirology 25 (3): 244–45.

Clem, Angela S. 2011. “Fundamentals of Vaccine Immunology.” Journal of Global Infectious Diseases 3 (1): 73–78.

Coxson, Harvey O., Robert M. Rogers, Kenneth P. Whittall, Yulia D’yachkova, Peter D. Paré, Frank C. Sciurba, and James C. Hogg. 1999. “A Quantification of the Lung Surface Area in Emphysema Using Computed Tomography.” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 159 (3): 851–56.

De Pelsmaeker, Steffi, Nicolas Romero, Massimo Vitale, and Herman W. Favoreel. n.d. “Herpesvirus Evasion of Natural Killer Cells.” Journal of Virology 92 (11): e02105-17.

Dinan, Timothy G., and John F. Cryan. 2017. “Microbes, Immunity, and Behavior: Psychoneuroimmunology Meets the Microbiome.” Neuropsychopharmacology 42 (1): 178–92.

Dou, Dan, Rebecca Revol, Henrik Östbye, Hao Wang, and Robert Daniels. 2018. “Influenza A Virus Cell Entry, Replication, Virion Assembly and Movement.” Frontiers in Immunology 9 (July): 1581.

Evans, Sharon S., Elizabeth A. Repasky, and Daniel T. Fisher. 2015. “Fever and the Thermal Regulation of Immunity: The Immune System Feels the Heat.” Nature Reviews. Immunology 15 (6): 335–49.

Groot, P. F. de, M. N. Frissen, N. C. de Clercq, and M. Nieuwdorp. 2017. “Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Metabolic Syndrome: History, Present and Future.” Gut Microbes 8 (3): 253–67.

Hasenberg, Mike, Sabine Stegemann-Koniszewski, and Matthias Gunzer. 2013. “Cellular Immune Reactions in the Lung.” Immunological Reviews 251 (1): 189–214.

Holt, Patrick G., Deborah H. Strickland, Matthew E. Wikström, and Frode L. Jahnsen. 2008. “Regulation of Immunological Homeostasis in the Respiratory Tract.” Nature Reviews. Immunology 8 (2): 142–52.

Joffre, Olivier P., Elodie Segura, Ariel Savina, and Sebastian Amigorena. 2012. “Cross-Presentation by Dendritic Cells.” Nature Reviews Immunology 12 (8): 557–69.

Jonjic, Stipan, Marina Babic, Bojan Polic, and Astrid Krmpotic. 2008. “Immune Evasion of Natural Killer Cells by Viruses.” Current Opinion in Immunology 20 (1): 30–38.

Kärre, Klas. 2008. “Natural Killer Cell Recognition of Missing Self.” Nature Immunology 9 (5): 477–80.

Lecuit, M., and M. Eloit. 2017. “Chapter 21 – The Viruses of the Gut Microbiota.” In The Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology, edited by Martin H. Floch, Yehuda Ringel, and W. Allan Walker, 179–83. Boston: Academic Press.

“Microbiology by Numbers.” 2011. Nature Reviews Microbiology 9 (9): 628–628.

Mina, Michael J., Tomasz Kula, Yumei Leng, Mamie Li, Rory D. de Vries, Mikael Knip, Heli Siljander, et al. 2019. “Measles Virus Infection Diminishes Preexisting Antibodies That Offer Protection from Other Pathogens.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 366 (6465): 599–606.

Moffatt, Miriam F, and William OCM Cookson. 2017. “The Lung Microbiome in Health and Disease.” Clinical Medicine 17 (6): 525–29.

Murphy, Kenneth, and Casey Weaver. 2016. Janeway’s Immunobiology. 9th edition. New York, NY: Garland Science/Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Oyston, Petra, and Karen Robinson. 2012. “The Current Challenges for Vaccine Development.” Journal of Medical Microbiology 61 (7): 889–94.

Petrova, Velislava N., Bevan Sawatsky, Alvin X. Han, Brigitta M. Laksono, Lisa Walz, Edyth Parker, Kathrin Pieper, et al. 2019. “Incomplete Genetic Reconstitution of B Cell Pools Contributes to Prolonged Immunosuppression after Measles.” Science Immunology 4 (41): eaay6125.

Roizman, Bernard. 1996. “Multiplication.” In Medical Microbiology, edited by Samuel Baron, 4th ed. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.

Rouse, Barry T., and Sharvan Sehrawat. 2010. “Immunity and Immunopathology to Viruses: What Decides the Outcome?” Nature Reviews Immunology 10 (7): 514–26.

Schultz-Cherry, Stacey. 2015. “Role of NK Cells in Influenza Infection.” Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 386: 109–20.

Smith, Amber M., and Alan S. Perelson. 2011. “Influenza A Virus Infection Kinetics: Quantitative Data and Models.” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine 3 (4): 429–45.

Walter, Edward James, Sameer Hanna-Jumma, Mike Carraretto, and Lui Forni. 2016. “The Pathophysiological Basis and Consequences of Fever.” Critical Care 20: 200.

Woolhouse, Mark, Fiona Scott, Zoe Hudson, Richard Howey, and Margo Chase-Topping. 2012. “Human Viruses: Discovery and Emergence.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 367 (1604): 2864–71.



Afshar-Sterle, Shoukat, Dimitra Zotos, Nicholas J. Bernard, Anna K. Scherger, Lisa Rödling, Amber E. Alsop, Jennifer Walker, et al. 2014. “Fas Ligand–Mediated Immune Surveillance by T Cells Is Essential for the Control of Spontaneous B Cell Lymphomas.” Nature Medicine 20 (3): 283–90.

Anthony, Robert M., Laura I. Rutitzky, Joseph F. Urban, Miguel J. Stadecker, and William C. Gause. 2007. “Protective Immune Mechanisms in Helminth Infection.” Nature Reviews Immunology 7 (12): 975–87.

Attarwala, H. 2010. “TGN1412: From Discovery to Disaster.” Journal of Young Pharmacists : JYP 2 (3): 332–36.

Bender, Eric. 2020. “Could a Bacteria-Stuffed Pill Cure Autoimmune Diseases?” Nature 577 (7792): S12–13.

Biesalski, Hans K. 2020. “Vitamin D Deficiency and Co-Morbidities in COVID-19 Patients – A Fatal Relationship?” NFS Journal 20 (August): 10–21.

Blanco-Melo, Daniel, Benjamin E. Nilsson-Payant, Wen-Chun Liu, Skyler Uhl, Daisy Hoagland, Rasmus Møller, Tristan X. Jordan, et al. 2020. “Imbalanced Host Response to SARS-CoV-2 Drives Development of COVID-19.” Cell 181 (5): 1036-1045.e9.

Blankenstein, Thomas, Pierre G. Coulie, Eli Gilboa, and Elizabeth M. Jaffee. 2012. “The Determinants of Tumour Immunogenicity.” Nature Reviews. Cancer 12 (4): 307–13.

Boesen, Ellen H., and Christoffer Johansen. 2008. “Impact of Psychotherapy on Cancer Survival: Time to Move On?” Current Opinion in Oncology 20 (4): 372–77.

Bouillon, Roger, Claudio Marcocci, Geert Carmeliet, Daniel Bikle, John H White, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Paul Lips, et al. 2019. “Skeletal and Extraskeletal Actions of Vitamin D: Current Evidence and Outstanding Questions.” Endocrine Reviews 40 (4): 1109–51.

Cohen, Sheldon. 2021. “Psychosocial Vulnerabilities to Upper Respiratory Infectious Illness: Implications for Susceptibility to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).” Perspectives on Psychological Science 16 (1): 161–74.

Cohen, Sheldon, William J. Doyle, Ronald B. Turner, Cuneyt M. Alper, and David P. Skoner. 2003. “Emotional Style and Susceptibility to the Common Cold.” Psychosomatic Medicine 65 (4): 652–57.

Cox, F. E. G. 2002. “History of Human Parasitology.” Clinical Microbiology Reviews 15 (4): 595–612.

Coyne, James C., and Howard Tennen. 2010. “Positive Psychology in Cancer Care: Bad Science, Exaggerated Claims, and Unproven Medicine.” Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine 39 (1): 16–26.

Coyne, James C., Howard Tennen, and Adelita V. Ranchor. 2010. “Positive Psychology in Cancer Care: A Story Line Resistant to Evidence.” Annals of Behavioral Medicine 39 (1): 35–42.

Daniel, V, A Melk, C SÜsal, R Weimer, R Zimmermann, A Huth-KÜhne, and G Opelz. 1999. “CD4 Depletion in HIV-Infected Haemophilia Patients Is Associated with Rapid Clearance of Immune Complex-Coated CD4+ Lymphocytes.” Clinical and Experimental Immunology 115 (3): 477–84.

Doherty, Derek G. 2016. “Immunity, Tolerance and Autoimmunity in the Liver: A Comprehensive Review.” Journal of Autoimmunity, Special Issue: Honoring the contributions of Professors Diego Vergani and Georgina Mieli-Vergani, 66 (January): 60–75.

Dunn, Gavin P., Lloyd J. Old, and Robert D. Schreiber. 2004. “The Three Es of Cancer Immunoediting.” Annual Review of Immunology 22 (1): 329–60.

Dustin, Michael L. 2014. “The Immunological Synapse.” Cancer Immunology Research 2 (11): 1023–33.

Farge, Dominique, Eliane Gluckman, and Alan Tyndall. 1999. “Treatment of Severe Autoimmune Diseases by Immunoablative Chemotherapy and Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation.” European Journal of Internal Medicine 10 (2): 88–96.

Filippi, Christophe M., and Matthias G. von Herrath. 2008. “Viral Trigger for Type 1 Diabetes.” Diabetes 57 (11): 2863–71.

Gauthier, Laurent, Ariane Morel, Nadia Anceriz, Benjamin Rossi, Audrey Blanchard-Alvarez, Gwendoline Grondin, Sylvia Trichard, et al. 2019. “Multifunctional Natural Killer Cell Engagers Targeting NKp46 Trigger Protective Tumor Immunity.” Cell 177 (7): 1701-1713.e16.

Haque, Rashidul. 2007. “Human Intestinal Parasites.” Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition 25 (4): 387–91.

Huang, Ruihao, Xiaoping Li, Yundi He, Wen Zhu, Lei Gao, Yao Liu, Li Gao, et al. 2020. “Recent Advances in CAR-T Cell Engineering.” Journal of Hematology & Oncology 13 (1): 86.

Hünig, Thomas. 2012. “The Storm Has Cleared: Lessons from the CD28 Superagonist TGN1412 Trial.” Nature Reviews. Immunology 12 (April): 317–18.

———. 2016. “The Rise and Fall of the CD28 Superagonist TGN1412 and Its Return as TAB08: A Personal Account.” The FEBS Journal 283 (18): 3325–34.

Irwin, Michael. 2002. “Psychoneuroimmunology of Depression: Clinical Implications.” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 16 (1): 1–16.

Jackson, Stephen P., and Jiri Bartek. 2009. “The DNA-Damage Response in Human Biology and Disease.” Nature 461 (7267): 1071–78.

June, C. H., J. A. Ledbetter, P. S. Linsley, and C. B. Thompson. 1990. “Role of the CD28 Receptor in T-Cell Activation.” Immunology Today 11 (6): 211–16.

Kissane, David W. 2007. “Letting Go of the Hope That Psychotherapy Prolongs Cancer Survival.” Journal of Clinical Oncology 25 (36): 5689–90.

Lamers, Sanne M. A., Linda Bolier, Gerben J. Westerhof, Filip Smit, and Ernst T. Bohlmeijer. 2012. “The Impact of Emotional Well-Being on Long-Term Recovery and Survival in Physical Illness: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Behavioral Medicine 35 (5): 538–47.

Lee, Jinmin, Sarah L. Veatch, Barbara Baird, and David Holowka. 2012. “Molecular Mechanisms of Spontaneous and Directed Mast Cell Motility.” Journal of Leukocyte Biology 92 (5): 1029–41.

Lerner, Aaron, Patricia Jeremias, and Torsten Matthias. 2015. “The World Incidence and Prevalence of Autoimmune Diseases Is Increasing.” International Journal of Celiac Disease 3 (4): 151–55.

Littrell, Jill L. 2019. “The Importance of Psychoneuroimmunology for Social Workers.” Families in Society 100 (1): 17–33.

Ma, Liyuan (Larry), Theodore M. Danoff, and Larry Borish. 2014. “Case Fatality and Population Mortality Associated with Anaphylaxis in the United States.” The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 133 (4): 1075–83.

Maizels, Rick M., and Henry J. McSorley. 2016. “Regulation of the Host Immune System by Helminth Parasites.” The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 138 (3): 666–75.

Medler, Terry R., Tiffany C. Blair, Marka R. Crittenden, and Michael J. Gough. 2021. “Defining Immunogenic and Radioimmunogenic Tumors.” Frontiers in Oncology 11: 839.

Moraes, Lucam J., Márcia B. Miranda, Liliany F. Loures, Alessandra G. Mainieri, and Cláudia Helena C. Mármora. 2018. “A Systematic Review of Psychoneuroimmunology-Based Interventions.” Psychology, Health & Medicine 23 (6): 635–52.

Mousavi, Elham, Ali Esmaeili, and Soodabeh Shahid Saless. 2015. “The Effect of Positive Thinking on Quality of Life and Resiliency of Cancer Patients.” Razavi International Journal of Medicine 3 (3): 24–28.

Murphy, Kenneth, and Casey Weaver. 2016. Janeway’s Immunobiology. 9th edition. New York, NY: Garland Science/Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Nes, Lise Solberg, and Suzanne C. Segerstrom. 2017. “Psychoneuroimmunology☆.” In Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology. Elsevier.

Nieman, David C., and Laurel M. Wentz. 2019. “The Compelling Link between Physical Activity and the Body’s Defense System.” Journal of Sport and Health Science 8 (3): 201–17.

Okada, H, C Kuhn, H Feillet, and J-F Bach. 2010. “The ‘Hygiene Hypothesis’ for Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases: An Update.” Clinical and Experimental Immunology 160 (1): 1–9.

Park, Annsea, and Akiko Iwasaki. 2020. “Type I and Type III Interferons – Induction, Signaling, Evasion, and Application to Combat COVID-19.” Cell Host & Microbe 27 (6): 870–78.

Parzanese, Ilaria, Dorina Qehajaj, Federica Patrinicola, Merica Aralica, Maurizio Chiriva-Internati, Sanja Stifter, Luca Elli, and Fabio Grizzi. 2017. “Celiac Disease: From Pathophysiology to Treatment.” World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology 8 (2): 27–38.

Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E. 2015. “The Allergy Epidemics: 1870-2010.” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 136 (1): 3–13.

Potter, Michael, Carol Black, and Abi Berger. 1999. “Bone Marrow Transplantation for Autoimmune Diseases.” BMJ : British Medical Journal 318 (7186): 750–51.

Rechtien, Anne, and Marcus Altfeld. 2019. “Sexual Dimorphism in HIV-1 Infection.” Seminars in Immunopathology 41 (2): 195–202.

Rhodes, David A., and David A. Isenberg. 2017. “TRIM21 and the Function of Antibodies inside Cells.” Trends in Immunology 38 (12): 916–26.

Rojas, Manuel, Paula Restrepo-Jiménez, Diana M. Monsalve, Yovana Pacheco, Yeny Acosta-Ampudia, Carolina Ramírez-Santana, Patrick S. C. Leung, Aftab A. Ansari, M. Eric Gershwin, and Juan-Manuel Anaya. 2018. “Molecular Mimicry and Autoimmunity.” Journal of Autoimmunity 95 (December): 100–123.

Ronaldson, Amy, Ahmad M. Gazali, Argita Zalli, Frank Kaiser, Stephen J. Thompson, Brian Henderson, Andrew Steptoe, and Livia Carvalho. 2016. “Increased Percentages of Regulatory T Cells Are Associated with Inflammatory and Neuroendocrine Responses to Acute Psychological Stress and Poorer Health Status in Older Men and Women.” Psychopharmacology 233 (9): 1661–68.

Rosenzweig, Sergio D., and Steven M. Holland. 2011. “Recent Insights into the Pathobiology of Innate Immune Deficiencies.” Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 11 (5): 369–77.

Schakel, Lemmy, Dieuwke S. Veldhuijzen, Paige I. Crompvoets, Jos A. Bosch, Sheldon Cohen, Henriët van Middendorp, Simone A. Joosten, Tom H. M. Ottenhoff, Leo G. Visser, and Andrea W. M. Evers. 2019. “Effectiveness of Stress-Reducing Interventions on the Response to Challenges to the Immune System: A Meta-Analytic Review.” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 88 (5): 274–86.

Schwartz, Ronald H. 2003. “T Cell Anergy.” Annual Review of Immunology 21: 305–34.

Scudellari, Megan. 2017. “News Feature: Cleaning up the Hygiene Hypothesis.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (7): 1433–36.

Segerstrom, Suzanne C., and Gregory E. Miller. 2004. “Psychological Stress and the Human Immune System: A Meta-Analytic Study of 30 Years of Inquiry.” Psychological Bulletin 130 (4): 601–30.

Seiler, Annina, Christopher P. Fagundes, and Lisa M. Christian. 2020. “The Impact of Everyday Stressors on the Immune System and Health.” In Stress Challenges and Immunity in Space, edited by Alexander Choukèr, 71–92. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Singh, Anurag K., and Joseph P. McGuirk. 2020. “CAR T Cells: Continuation in a Revolution of Immunotherapy.” The Lancet. Oncology 21 (3): e168–78.

Solomon, George Freeman. 1985. “The Emerging Field of Psychoneuroimmunology.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (3): 411–411.

Sopori, Mohan. 2002. “Effects of Cigarette Smoke on the Immune System.” Nature Reviews. Immunology 2 (5): 372–77.

Stein, Michelle M., Cara L. Hrusch, Justyna Gozdz, Catherine Igartua, Vadim Pivniouk, Sean E. Murray, Julie G. Ledford, et al. 2016. “Innate Immunity and Asthma Risk in Amish and Hutterite Farm Children.” The New England Journal of Medicine 375 (5): 411–21.

Tedla, Mebrahtu G., Alison L. Every, and Jean-Pierre Y. Scheerlinck. 2019. “Investigating Immune Responses to Parasites Using Transgenesis.” Parasites & Vectors 12 (1): 303.

Tournier, J- N, J Mathieu, Y Mailfert, E Multon, C Drouet, A Jouan, and E Drouet. 2001. “Chronic Restraint Stress Induces Severe Disruption of the T-Cell Specific Response to Tetanus Toxin Vaccine.” Immunology 102 (1): 87–93.

Waki, Kayoko, and Eric O. Freed. 2010. “Macrophages and Cell-Cell Spread of HIV-1.” Viruses 2 (8): 1603–20.

Wang, Shixiang, Zaoke He, Xuan Wang, Huimin Li, and Xue-Song Liu. n.d. “Antigen Presentation and Tumor Immunogenicity in Cancer Immunotherapy Response Prediction.” ELife 8: e49020.

Yan, Qing. 2016. Psychoneuroimmunology Systems Biology Approaches to Mind-Body Medicine. 1st ed. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Youll, Jackie, and Helen Meekosha. 2013. “Always Look on the Bright Side of Life: Cancer and Positive Thinking.” Journal of Sociology 49 (1): 22–40.